Every organization needs to keep track of information about a set of entities. For a business, these may be customers, partners or competitors. It may also be items related to the marketplace, industry sector(s) and related industries. Here is a simple mind map of a few things I can think about. This is just a starting point. (if you need a copy of this mindmap in pdf format you can get it here).
Do you have a strategy to gather information and use it? How do you do it today?
Update 5th Aug 2013
I found a formal Ontology Specification for Organization and Registered Organization (attempts at standardizing organization meta data). Here is a picture from the Organization Ontology.
Updated (Oct 2013)
A schema for an Organization is available here. If you are an Ontologist, modeler or software developer, you may also be interested in a more generic discussion of the data model.
This is well thought out. There is probably a life cycle element or morphology that you can include to adjust for the age/maturity of the business. Spotting startups and early stage firms is different from looking for new products or other indicia from an established firm.
That is true. And what you need to find out about them is different too.